Urgent Facts About Chlamydia, a Common STI

…..Sexually transmitted infections in adolescents continued…

…..CChlamydia Infohlamydia is one of the most common infectious diseases in the United States, with somewhere between 1 to 3 million cases each year among women ages 15 to 45. The most affected group is between ages 15 and 19, followed by 20 to 25 as the second most affected group.

…..One problem in finding this infection is that less than half of the most affected women are screened for Chlamydia trachomatis. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) guidelines suggest a yearly screening for chlamydia on all sexually active women who are 25 and younger, and testing should be performed for women over 25 if they have a new sexual partner or multiple partners. Women should also seek testing if they experience abdominal or pelvic pain, vaginal discharge, painful intercourse, pain with urination, or irregular bleeding.

…..Testing usually entails a speculum exam with a Q-tip swab of the cervix. If the speculum exam is a problem for the adolescent, then a vaginal swab can be performed. The patient can even collect a vaginal swab test privately if necessary.

…..After a woman is treated, reinfection is common, and having a treated infection does not provide immune protection against future infections. It is therefore advised that a repeat test be performed a few months after a treated infection.

…..If there is a delay in treatment of this infection, then there is an increased chance of developing an infection of the pelvis, called pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which can lead to infertility. Some studies suggest that PID can develop in up to 30% of women with their first chlamydial infection.

…..There are many antibiotic treatment plans suggested by the CDC, and they all are very successful. The adolescent and her partner should avoid intercourse for 7 days after both partners have been treated.  Ideally, the patient should refer for testing any sexual partner that she encountered within the last 1-2 months.

-Dr. P

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What Factors Place Adolescents at an Increased Risk of Developing STIs?

Young women are at a high risk of acquiring STIs (sexually transmitted infections) and of developing the serious complications of untreated chlamydial and gonococcal infections.  Almost half of all STIs occur in teenagers and young adults between the ages of 15 and 25.  Physical and behavioral factors place the sexually active teenager at an increased risk to develop these infections.

Physically, the cervix is more vulnerable to these infections because it has not fully developed, exposing more susceptible cells to the infections.  Since the young woman may be coming into contact with these infectious agents for the first time, her immune defenses are not strong.

Behavioral risk factors include having multiple new sexual partners and not using condoms or not using condoms properly.  The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has a goal to increase the simultaneous use of both condoms and hormonal contraception (birth control pills).  This combination of methods is highly effective in preventing a pregnancy and preventing the acquisition of STIs.  Yet currently, some studies reveal that only about 5% of adolescent females are using this practice.

-Dr. P

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